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The Vietnam alloantigens (system) are a set of blood group antigens carried by red blood cells. These antigens are similar to the MNS blood group system.
In 1912, a French Army doctor named Philibert published an article in which he named and described a group of red blood cells with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of the Rh blood group system. In 1913, Philibert published a book which contained all known blood group systems at that time, and in which he named the newly described antigens as A1 and B1.
The ABO system was given its definitive description in 1950 by Dr. Jacob Golberger, who published a description in an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, entitled "The ABO system of blood group antigen identification". Golberger recognized that his new antigens were the same as those named by Philibert and therefore renamed them I (for "Israel") and S (for "stella", Latin for star).
The Rh system was given its definitive description in 1948 by Dr. J.H. Pauling and Dr. F.B. Jelliffe, who published their description in an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, entitled "Identification of blood groups". They described two new blood groups, D and C, and both groups have since been renamed.
The Rhesus system was given its definitive description in 1972 by Dr. W.E.J. Dallinga and Dr. F.P.M. van der Aa, who published their description in the American Journal of Medical Genetics, entitled "The Rh blood group system. The classification and molecular genetics of Rhesus antigens."
The distribution of the three systems can be summarized as follows:
The Vietnamese antigens are listed in order of decreasing prevalence.
The Vietnamese antigens are expressed on the surface of red blood cells, but unlike ABO and Rh systems, they are not present on the erythrocyte membrane. They were identified as being carried by 1% of the normal population and are not associated with any blood disorders. They were observed to be expressed on the red blood cells of 3 of every 1000 blood donors in Vietnam. However, in 0b46394aab